Saturday, December 7, 2019

Counselling free essay sample

A counselling case study which considers sociocultural issues.This essay is going to be looking at a fictional case study of a client, who is struggling with fear and sadness, from a counsellors perspective. The case study will focus on sociocultural issues such as culture, gender, race and sexuality and then I will consider how these sociocultural issues may be part of the reason for the clients distress and how important it is to address these issues in order to help the client overcome the fear and sadness they are experiencing. The core sociocultural issues this case study focuses on are gender, sexuality and race and culture. The main counselling approach used is the person-centred therapy and the case study is based on 22-year-old woman who is transgender who is mixed raced and suffering with major anxiety and panic attacks.Joanne is a 22-year-old mixed race woman living in Manchester, she moved to Manchester with her parents when she was 16, she previously lived in Sussex when her father received a promotion which meant them moving to a new city. Congruence Isabel : I would find it quite easy to display congruence with Isabel. I have the same views i. e. I would not terminate a pregnancy as myself being a mother, I know the kind of thoughts and feelings that Isabels would be experiencing about this issue. Empathy Sam; I could emphasise with Sam losing his mother, he feels like he has let her down and perhaps needs some reassurance and some one to understand how he feels. It would be easy for me to reflect back to Sam with some of is issues of guilt and loss, as at times, I too have experienced similarfeelings. 358 Words) Sam Answer to Question 1b Sam: I have chosen Sam because he appears to have lots of different issues to deal with. I would use person centred because most of his issues appear to fit in the here and now. This will benefit him by using the core conditions to deal with loss i. e. loss of bereavement with his mother his sisters loss for not having an healthy child and the up and coming Although the issues around having another child might be best dealt with in a more CBT approach, Im saying this because he has such fixed views about terminating the pregnancy if there was any deformity present with the child, i dont beleave that PCA would help as much. But by keeping within person centred, will help Sam to become fully functional again. By building an helping relationship of using an empathic understanding, and showing him unconditional positive regard and congruence, this will help sam to be able to explore himself and figure out for him self on how to be able to move forwards. 188 Words) The psychodynamic concept of defence mechanisms Answer to Question 2a ( i ) We have three major systems of our personality this is the ID, ego and superego. This is a way that we protect ourselves from things we dont want to think about or deal with today. When we suffer from anxiety this is when the ego creates a defence mechanisms to protect ourselves. We unconsciously have set up with in us defence mechanisms such as repression denial and projection Repression is an unconscious way of hiding uncomfortable thoughts. Denial is probably one of the most common known defence mechanisms. We often deny our thoughts and feelings and filter out data and content that contravene our self-image, prejudices, and preconceived notions of others and of the world. Projection is when we attribute to others these unacceptable, discomfiting, and ill-fitting feelings and traits that we have. This way we can disown these discordant features and then feel the right to criticize and chastise others for having them. ( 150 ) ( ii ) Intellectualization, is a defence mechanism of protecting ourselves from anxiety, by blocking our emotions connected with something we cannot confront. An Uncomfortable emotion we cannot deal with at the time. Sometimes we use excessive behaviour to avoid accepting it and reasoning is used to block out confrontations. This could mean also removing ourselves emotionally from what has happened. I used this defence mechanism when my Nan died, I couldnt face that, one of the most important people in my life had gone. Even at her funeral I refused to believe that it was her body in the Coffin. I did everything not to face it, it is a defence mechanism where I had to use reasoning to block out the confrontation, be it an unconscious conflict but I couldnt deal with these feelings at that time so. I had to remove myself emotionally, completely ignored as if to be irrelevant. ( 150 Words ) ( iii ) Repression: When someone uses the defence mechanism of repression, this helps keep information out of our conscious awareness. These memories dont disappear though, they then influence us in our behaviour. We may consciously force the unwanted information out which is known as suppression. The removal of some of our anxiety feelings and memories from our awareness, is believed to occur unconsciously. 3/ EXAM PAPER Paper Ref; P000179 I choose myself as an example of this mechanism, I suffered from sexual and mental abuse as a child, I believe that this is why I have suffered in forming and keeping relationships in my adult years. A natural defence mechanism repression kicked in as a way to keep me safe as a child, memories still appear at times. , I have had to have many sessions of counselling to deal with my past and feel now that I could cope with these feelings if they arose. (147 Words ) Answer to Question 2b I have chosen Jamie because he appears to have some dificulties accepting things relating to his childhood, which seems to be affecting his life with current issues, i. e. Involving him self and accepting his child having a disabilty. I beleave he could have been in denial and repression upto this point. Because most of Jamies issues appear to fit in the past, this is why it would be best to use a more psychcodynamic approach and take Jamie back to his childhood to deal with these issues, for him to be able to address his fears and wrong doings and move forwards. Jamie coming to terms with what he had done as a child, with bullying a disabled child and how Jamie had remembered his father saying it was not his fault, and that it was the father and son, who was at fault. Because of this, It also would be of benefit to talk about how his fathers values may have affected him, he may have conflicting feelings about his parents. Jamie also thought that people would always feel sorry for him having a child with a disability with addressing his issues these feelings may ease. (197 Words) Question 3 N/A Answer to Question 4a I see challenging as a way of helping a person confront there problems, to face up to and challenge themselves, away of moving forwards. It is a skill full tool because its how to do it without When challenging we need to be cautious, because it may come across has being confrontational, aggressive or hostile, which may hold back the client or even cause them to withdraw from the counselling process. We need to use challenging in a structural and helping way, giving support when necessary, this is to maintain a respectful and trusting relationship with the client. If we challenge too soon this could also trigger a defence mechanism. We have to listen carefully before we start to challenge, also be prepared to be challenged and also know what it feels like to be challenged. (138 Words) Answer to Question 4b Sam responded in the only way he knew best at that time. Although I believe he should have asked permission to have put his hand on Jamies shoulder, meaning he could have come across as being intrusive. I thought Sams response was acceptable, if he didnt no what to say, then he was best to say nothing, sometimes just someone being there to listen will help. He was there with Jamie, allowing Jamie space to express him self emotionally, showing him a response of being non-judgemental. 4/ EXAM PAPER Paper Ref; P000179 Sam listened to Jamie, even when he started to confide in him, about when he used to taunt a disabled boy when he was 11 or 12, Sam still stayed with him, showing that he was still there for him. I believe he responded showing his support by listening. Showed his concerns for Jamie, that he cared about his feelings. By challenging him, whilst supporting him, this will help to balance out the emotions. I felt he allowed Jamie to express his feelings and listened without being judgemental. (177 Words) Answer to Question 5 The benefits of respect for diversity with teachers and children in schools I perceive to be; I feel it to be essential to teach children to respect diversity because, it would create a respecting environment within school, with teachers and children. Children especially pick up on everything around them, so it is important for teachers to show the same respect for each individual child, for the child to then learn to respect one another. It is also important for young children to recognise their own uniqueness and for them to understand that their own individuality should be embraced. When children learn about the wide variety of people in the world and around them, this will influence the way that they grow and also what they will become. A means of developing into confident secure adults who respect and appreciate diversity or into adults who view others with disrespect and fear because of ignorance and the unknown, which if left, could turn into fears and suspicions, leading to anger, interracial, cultural and stereo typing which will affect schools, homes, places of work, turning then into places of misunderstanding and mistrust. Educating children about these differences will reduce young peoples fears and will replace it with curiosity and acceptance. I try my best to show respect for diversity, its taking a look at my own behaviour and what my opinions are, be it negative or positive, and knowing that my behaviour towards others will all have an impact on the people around me. I respect diversity and equality with all the different cultures around me, I respect people who they are and what their values may be, everyone is individual with their own unique qualities. I use this respect in my day-to-day living when meet people, being non-judgemental (296 Words) Answer to Question 6 The Model/Theorist I have chosen is Colin Murray Parkes – 4 Stages of Bereavement First stage being Numbness : Numbness forms a psychological and physical barrier which blocks out pain allowing the person who is grieving, to carry on with day-to-day living. Second Stage : The stage when the bereaved person can think only of the deceased and is unable to concentrate on anything else other than the person who has died, this giving a feeling of grief/pining the emotional response to searching. Third Stage : This stage is when reality starts to kicks in, when the person has to admit that searching is not going to bring that person back and pangs of grief start to subside. Anger in relation with the loss, loses strength, which is replaced by feelings of apathy and despair. He/she is then forced into accepting it, having to move on to survive. 5/ EXAM PAPER Paper Ref; P000179 Fourth Stage : Recovery: Starting to live again, while past thoughts and thinking are beginning to ease, therefore allowing the person to be released. Just because there are four stages does not mean to say, that every individual has to go through all these stages, some people may skip stages. I have chosen the character named Sam, with the loss of his mother. I believe Sam within the case study is in between the second and third stages, this being that, he is still searching, he still talks to his mother and has conversations in his head. He his wanting reassurance from his mother hes wanting to talk with her regarding having another child. He probably went through feelings of anger and regret, he had feelings of letting his mother down through other work and family commitments. (285 Words) Answer to Question 7 Jamies parents. It said that Jamies parents seem to have an harsh and rather judgemental view of life. Blaming todays problems on women and how they are selfish in wanting a career. It also said about women not having enough discipline with in the home and lack of respect for older people. They also disapproved of Jamies wife Keira, they referred to her has a university type, saying this, despite their own son having attended university. They even tried to put blame on Keira for Joshuas disability and refused to imagine any such thing could be at fault with there side of the family what would have caused this. This did have an impact on my attitudes, values, beliefs. I ask myself, â€Å"how could I form an helping relationship with people who have such different values and views on life, so opposite to my own†. I feel I would find it quite challenging at times, knowing that I had to show empathy and acceptance in what they had say, and be non-judgemental. Although challenging I would listen and may be by challenging them later on in the relationship would give me a better understanding on how they acquired these values. If it did start to affect me and the way I was thinking, I would take my issues to supervision, hoping to gain help with personal development on the skill of acceptance. coping strategies in accepting people with negative views. Its also about knowing my own limitations and when to refer. (250 Words) Answer to Question 8a

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